Grouting in civil engineering refers to the injection of pumpable materials into a soil or rock formation to change its physical characteristics. It is one of the ways in which ground water can be controlled during civil engineering works

Typically, grouting is carried out is by driving pipes or boring holes into the ground, and then pumping the grout solution at high pressure through inserted tubes.

The extent of grouting required for a particular area is determined through investigation of ground conditions and the calculation of a drilling pattern. This considers the size, spacing and depth of the holes required. The type of grout and the particular ground conditions will influence the spacing of the holes.

The pressure of the grout injection is dependent on soil conditions,

Grout Placement Techniques

  • Gravity Fill Techniques
  • Pressure Grouting Techniques

There are several different types of material used for grouting

  • Cement grouting
  • Bentonite grouting
  • Chemical grouting


Gunite is also known as shortcrete or pneumatically applied mortar.

It can be used on vertical and overhead, as well as on horizontal surfaces and is particularly useful for restoring surfaces spalled due to corrosion of reinforcement.

Gunite is a mixture of Portland cement, sand & water, shot in to the place by compressed air.

Guniting is basically used in swimming pool, dams,tanks etc.


The cement-sand mixture in the ratio of 1:2 or 1:3 depending upon the requirement, is applied at high pressure over the surface with the help of specialized equipment.

Guniting is extensively used to rehalibate concrete bridges,dams, spillways, buildings etc.